5 edition of Axon Growth, Injury & Regeneration in the Fly Brain found in the catalog.
December 30, 2006
by Leuven Univ Pr
Written in English
Acta Biomedica Lovaniensia
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||128|
Intracellular tension is the most important characteristic of neuron polarization as well as the growth and regeneration of axons, which can be generated by motor proteins and conducted along the cytoskeleton. To better understand this process, we created Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tension probes that can be incorporated into microfilaments to provide a real-time In theory, this can be achieved by (1) long-distance regeneration of severed axons, followed by target innervation and synapse formation; (2) short-distance axonal growth and synapse formation on neural elements that form relays to neuronal targets distal to the injury site; and (3) activation of spared neuronal ensembles that maintain
Dendrites can experience damage during traumatic brain injury (TBI) [8–10], and dendrite degeneration has been observed in neurodegenerative disease [11–13]. It has also been shown that dendrites simplify after axon damage [14–17]. In the case of retraction after axon injury, dendrites can re-elaborate if the axon reaches a target. In ?id=/ Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re ?id=/
regulation of axon growth are still not fully understood. It is known that the surrounding CNS injury is known to act as a barrier to growth of new axons. Indeed, it was demonstrated by Davies et al.  that even PNS neurons, which will grow along normal CNS white Axon regeneration after SCI has also been demonstrated following the Axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is difficult to achieve, and no fundamental treatment can be applied in clinical settings. DNA methylation has been suggested to play a role in regeneration capacity and neuronal growth after SCI by controlling the expression of regeneration
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In contrast, however, the JNK pathway promotes neural growth in explants of the adult fly central brain tissue and in growth upon traumatic brain inj In the developmental context, JNK is important for axon format 38, 39 and helps to drive axon guidance 40 ; it is also associated with the regenerative response Introduction.
Drosophila melanogaster is a leading genetic model organism in deciphering neuroscience problems like memory formation or odor processing (Hallem and Carlson, ; Margulies Injury & Regeneration in the Fly Brain book al., ), as well as modelling neurodegenerative diseases (Shulman et al., ; Bilen and Bonini, ).Recently, we and others developed methods to study traumatic brain injury in the fly :// Axon Injury and Regeneration in the Adult Drosophila the JNK pathway promotes neural growth in explants of the adult fly central brain tissue and in growth upon traumatic brain injury Axon degeneration is the pivotal pathological event of acute traumatic neural injury as well as many chronic neurodegenerative diseases.
It is an active cellular program and yet molecularly distinct from cell death. Much effort is devoted toward understanding the nature of axon degeneration and promoting axon regeneration. However, the fundamental mechanisms of self-destruction of damaged Axon Injury and Regeneration in the Adult Drosophila Lorena Soares, Michael Parisi & Nancy M.
Bonini Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA,:// Outline. Introduction Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System Wallerian degeneration is the secondary disruption of the myelin sheath and axon distal to the injury The molecular and cellular events during Wallerian degeneration in the PNS transform the damaged nerve into an environment that supports regeneration Both Schwann cells and basal lamina are required Macrophages could serve as a substrate for axon growth or promote regeneration by removing debris by phagocytosis—a major function of macrophages in peripheral nerve regeneration in Abstract.
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful model to study axonal biology including axon degeneration and regeneration (Brace et al., J Neurosci –, ; Valakh et al.
J Neurosci –17, ; Xiong and Collins J Neurosci –, ; Xiong et al. –, ). Both adult and larval injury models have been developed in the fruit :// Abstract. In this chapter, we present a detailed protocol for culturing the adult Drosophila brain ex vivo and discuss some of the possibilities this method opens up.
Mature Drosophila brains can be easily maintained in culture for a long period of time, with very little deterioration. Explanting and culturing the brains using our technique solves the accessibility, immobilization, and Previous studies have shown that at least some of these da neurons are capable of regrowing dendrites after injury, and one has shown that the canonical axon injury-sensing pathway DLK/Wallenda is dispensable for dendrite regeneration (Sugimura et al.
; Song et al. ; Stone et al. However, little was known about the properties and Axon regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) requires reactivating injured neurons’ intrinsic growth state and enabling growth in an inhibitory environment. Using an inbred mouse neuronal phenotypic screen, we find that CAST/Ei mouse adult dorsal root ganglion neurons extend axons more on CNS myelin than the other eight strains Growth cones and the cytoskeleton: Leading to successful nerve regeneration, one of the first steps after physical injury of the axon is the formation of a new growth cone.
This is achieved through the reorganization of the cytoskeleton at the proximal axonal :// Abstract. Axon regeneration in the mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is extremely limited after injury.
Consequently, functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury, stroke, and related conditions that involve axonal :// Title: Overcoming Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycan Inhibition of Axon Growth in the Injured Brain: Lessons from Chondroitinase ABC VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 24 Author(s): J.A.
Del Rio and E. Soriano Affiliation:Department of Cell Biology, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Josep SamitierE- Barcelona, Spain.
Keywords:Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, axon regeneration This chapter discusses the injury reactions and axonal regeneration in the thalamus of the adult rat.
The chapter also discusses a study in which the proximal end of tibial nerve autografts are placed into the caudolateral thalamus of adult anesthetized rats Newly developed axon regeneration paradigms in genetic organisms.
The small size of neurons in C. elegans, Drosophila and lower vertebrates presented technical challenges for nerve injuryYanik et al. developed a femtosecond laser surgery protocol to perform acute in vivo axotomy on transgenically labeled fluorescent axons in live C.
elegans :// Outline. Introduction Upregulation of Cytokines Distal to Nerve Injury Local Inflammatory Profiling of Schwann Cells, NPP Induction, and Promotion of Axon Regeneration as a Dual Effect of Cytokines Expression of Cytokines Around and in Axotomized Primary Sensory Neurons Role of Cytokines in the DRG and NPP Induction Role of Cytokines in the Reactivation of the Axon regeneration is a fundamental process for recovery after disease or traumatic injuries in the nervous system.
In the central nervous system of mammals, neurons only regenerate in the embryonic or neonatal periods. By contrast, axon regeneration occurs spontaneously in the peripheral nervous system of adult :// Defining mechanisms of axon injury signaling is critical to understand axon regeneration.
This knowledge can be used to develop strategies of axonal repair. Identification of such injury signals has been limited by traditional in vivo assays of proregenerative injury signaling. Here, we describe an in vitro screening platform that specifically identifies proregenerative axon injury signals in Keywords: axon growth, neuronal regeneration, intrinsic gr owth, mouse models, neuronal injury The focus of this review is a description of the mechanisms of intrinsic axonal growth during.
In response to axon severing, many neurons have the capacity to regenerate this part of the cell. Classic axon regeneration involves signaling from the site of injury back to the cell body, followed by initiation of outgrowth from the remaining axon stump [1,2,3].In some cases, particularly in the peripheral nervous system, regrowing axons may ultimately reconnect with targets to recover In this study, the authors show that the RNA repair and splicing pathway regulates axon regeneration in the nervous system of Drosophila.
Rtca, a RNA cyclase, is a potent inhibitor of CNS axon Abstract. Axon regeneration following nerve injury is a highly conserved process in animals. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model for investigating the molecular mechanisms of axon regeneration. Recent studies using C.
elegans have shown that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays the important role in axon regeneration. Furthermore, many factors have been identified that